Saturday, June 30, 2018

Silviculture and Silvicultural systems

Silviculture is defined as the art an science of cultivating forest crops. In other words, Silviculture  includes both Silvics and its practical application. Silvics is defined as the study of life history and general characteristics of forest crops with particular reference to environmental factors, as the basis for practice of the silviculture. 

Objectives of the Study of Silviculture

  1. Increasing the productivity of the forest

  2. To fulfill the multifarious requirements of the people with the cultivation of more valuable and useful species of trees

  3. Improvement of deteriorating natural forest and creating new man-made forest

  4. Maintaining the good forest condition of both natural and man-made forests by proper tending

A Silvicultural System is defined as a method of silvicultural procedure worked out in accordance with accepted sets of silvicultural principles by which crops constituting forests are tended, harvested and replaced by new crops of distinctive forms.

Silvicultural systems are primarily classified on the basis of the mode of regeneration and this is further classified according to the pattern of felling.

  1. High Forest Systems- These are the systems in which the regeneration is normally of seedling origin, either natural or artificial or a combination of the both and where the rotation is generally long.

          a.Clear -felling System

   b. Shelterwood System

          c. Selection System

          d. High Forest with reserve

          e.Two Storeyed High Forest

          f .Improvement Felling

2. Coppice Systems- These are those Silvicultural Systems in which the crop originates  mainly from coppice and where the rotation of the Coppice is short. These systems are further classified into several Silvicultural systems on the pattern of felling.

a. Simple Coppice system

b.Coppice with Standards system

c. Coppice with reserve System

d. The Coppice of two Rotation system

e.The Coppice Selection system

f.The Shelter wood Coppice System

g. The pollarding

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Top 10 valuable car brands in the world (2017)

1.       Toyota

Toyota  established in 1937 in Japan now sells its car in almost all nations. In 2017 the brand value of Toyota is $46.3 billion.

2.       BMW

Established in 1916 in Germany the brand has a value of $37.1 billion.

3.       Mercedes-Benz

 Established in 1926 the German Automaker has a value of $35.5 billion.


Established in 1937 in Germany the brand has a value of 25 billion $.


1933 Japanese Automaker  Nissan is valued 24.8$ billion.



American Automaker Ford is valued 22.4 billion $ in 2017.

7. Honda

1948 Japanese Automaker Honda  has seventh place this year with value worth 21.3$ billion.


1909 German Automaker Audi is worth 12.5 $ billion in 2017.


German Automaker Porsche is valued 12.4$ billion in 2017.

10.   Chevrolet

 Established in 1911 in  America this automaker  is valued 11.4$ billion in 2017.

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Check your Motorbike by yourself


The important thing we should first check is Mobil in motorbike. If the liquid is in less amount it may affect the engine. Generally it is recommended to change Mobil after running upto 1500 kms or maybe more depending upon the type   ofmobil. If we change the Mobil lately like after 2000 kms problem may arise on the engine. The bike doesnot run smoothly.

Air filter

Our bike engine runs with the combustion of oil and air. The Airfilter on our bike blocks the dust particles from entering to the engine and supply relatively pure air for combustion. We can use it by cleaning on every servicing time and change at every 5000 kms.


It maintains constant supply of air and oil to the engine on the bike. If we ride motorbike on high speed the carburetor is more active. Often during cold season we use choke which is attached to the carburetor to start the engine.
We can know that carburetor is working or not by the sound of the engine.

Fuel pipe

It supply oil from fuel tank to the engine. We should check the fuel pipe often to ensure the leak of oil or obstruction on the pipe. It is good to change the pipe rather than re mend it in case of damage.

Brake or brake oil

This is very delicate part of the motorbike. It may lead to an accident if not properly checked. The brake oil in Disc-brake bikes is used for operating the brake smoothly every time the user press the brake handles.


We should check tyre pressure before every ride to ensure safety ride. The pressure must be maintained according to the recommendation. Likewise in Tubeless tyres liquid in them should be change if the pressure of the tyresdecreases  at rapid rate after refilling air also.

There are other   things that the bike user may check by themselves to ensure the durability of motorbike and their own safety.




Fast Transfer of Folders and Files between two PCs Directly through RJ-45 Cable


  1. Ethernet cable can be used for connecting two different computers directly and used for transferring files, pictures, music and videos.
  2. First take an Ethernet cable and then connect to RJ-45 port of both the computers.
  3. Go to MY computer of any one of the Pc say PC1 and Click Properties.
  4. Change the COMPUTER NAME TO A and workgroup name to ABC. Click on OK to save changes.
  5. After finishing doing all these go to control Panel and then network connections.
  6. Right click on to the LAN connection and select properties.
  7. Find Internet Protocol( TCP/IP) and then properties and enter the following values.                    IP ADDRESS                                                                                                    Subnet Mask                                                                                                       Leave all the other fields blank. Click on Ok to save the changes.

  1. Change the Computer Name(Say Pc2) to B and the workgroup ABC. Then click on Ok to save the changes. And continue with the above steps. After the settings and connection have been saved, both Pcs should be connected by LAN. Computer may be required to restart to implement the changes.