Sunday, October 25, 2015

How to Fix Damaged SD Cards?

If your SD card (external memory) is unreadable, corrupteddamaged, or has some kind of error the data present in it can be recovered to some extent. There are various methods to recover data from SD cards but sometimes one may not work for the one and the other.

Here I have listed some of the methods to recover data (such as photos,audios,videos and documents) from the card.

Method 1
  The most preferable method is to recover from  using  Cmd in Ms Windows.First connect the memory card to computer by card reader or by data cable  and open command prompt by writing cmd in run at start menu (ctrl+R>write cmd and press enter). 
  When the cmd window is opened,write chkdsk m:/r (where m is the drive letter of your memory card).Press enter and then wait until the process is completed. 

  Next way is  you also can type atrrib -s -h /s /d *.* in cmd window .Make sure that you put space between each elements in the code and hit enter and wait for few seconds.Here d is the respective USB letter.
Method 2
  Various other data recovery software can be used to recover data from damaged SD cards.We can find many recovery  software in the internet,some are usually fake and some are not free too we have to pay for the software .Asoftech Data Recovery,EaseUS Data Recovery and UsbFix are some of the data recovery software.You can download free of cost in the internet and recover your data.

Saturday, October 24, 2015

Basic idea for using PHP language

    PHP stands for “Hypertext Preprocessor”. It is an open source programming language  (Free to use and download ) for the web. It is a server side scripting language that can be used with HTML code, then processed when the page is requested by client. Practically,PHP is much easier to learn and code when compared to other programming languages. It is fast and flexible. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. It reduces the time to create large website. It creates a customized user experience for visitors based on information that you have gathered from them. It also allows creation of shopping carts for e-commerce websites.
     Here,I am going to demonstrate basic idea for using PHP language.For that firstly we need  Xamp/Wamp server installed on  PC.Then,
⦁ Open notepad and type the code as below. Here I am using “Hello world” that will be displayed as webpage. If you want to use any other text/string then you should write inside the echo code.

You should save that code with .Php extension as “All File types”. If you are using” xamp” server it must be inside the given folder named “htdocs” but if you are using “wamp” server it must be inside the given folder named “www”.

You should open Xamp/wamp  server now. Click on the start button as given below.

Now the process is completed.For viewing the output.
1)Open any browser that could be Chrome,Mozilla or any others.
2)Type “localhost/hello.php.If you have any sub folder then you should give complete locations.      

       Finally the result will be displayed as follows.                                                                                      


       Now we  can type in Nepali Unicode  in any software applications on computer using google input tools.we don't need any applications for that simply we can type through our normal keyboard and it changes in Nepali font in an instant.

Step 1: Get Google input tools here. we get directed to this page.

Step 2: On the right side of the tab "choose your languages" tick on Nepali language and download it by agreeing to the terms and policy of Google.

Step 3: Dialogue box will appear and soon it will be downloaded.

Step 4:We should enable the Google input tools after  installation.

 Check the right side of the  task bar on the desktop  where we can see ENG text. By clicking there a option will come displaying to choose the language input method.Choose NEPALI and then the task is completed. If we want it back in English language we can click on the same place and choose ENGLISH.
If we are not able to find the ENG text on the right side of the text bar we should get on to the control panel and Under Clock, Language and Region you will see "Change keyboard or other input methods". Click on it and make changes by selecting on preferred language.

 Now Start Typing anywhere in Nepali Unicode! The Google Input tool will convert your text instantly into Nepali. Here is the preview of typing and suggestion dialogue box that will appear after you start typing.

Saturday, July 25, 2015

Study of Bsc.forestry and Bsc.agriculture in Nepal

           Study of Bsc.forestry and Bsc.agriculture is now in high demand among the students who have just passed +2 level in science faculty. Forestry deals with the study of forests and wildlife. Students who have  interest on wildlife and forest are very much keen to study this subject. There are various scope of forestry in Nepal  as the Government of Nepal is aiming to conserve the forest at greater extent which in turn provides job opportunities to the forestry students and also there are job opportunities in various forest and wildlife conservation related NGOs and INGOs. Forestry course in Nepal is a 4 years course and students who have completed intermediate level in science or forestry are eligible to apply for the form. The entrance examination is quite competitive as there are limited numbers of seats in the colleges all over Nepal and there are high number of aspirants who wants to read this subject. Currently there are three campuses in Nepal where forestry is taught.
Bsc.Ag is also a 4 years course which can be pursued by the aspirants who have completed intermediate level in science and agriculture. BSc.Ag concerns about the various aspects of the agriculture. Agriculture is an emerging platform in various foreign countries. Aspirants in this field have high career scope abroad.

 Regarding the seats and colleges of forestry:

1) Pokhara forestry campus, Pokhara (Institute of Forestry, TU)
2) Hetauda forestry campus, Hetauda (Agriculture and Forestry University)
3) Kathmandu forestry campus, Kathmandu (TU affiliated)

  There are 80 seats in Pokhara Forestry Campus of which 30 are general(full scholarship) and there are 50 seats under Kathmandu Forestry Campus of which all are paying as it is a private college. Students who have appear the entrance exam conducted by TU and scored at least pass marks can apply to join for this college. Students who apply for the first 50 are chosen. In Hetauda forestry campus there are 40 seats under TU and 40 under AFU.

 The question pattern for the entrance exam conducted by TU is Chem.-10,Phy.-10,Biology-20,Forestry-20,English-20,Mathmatics-20 and the question pattern of the entrance exam conducted by Agriculture and Forestry University is Chem.- 12,Phy-12,Bio-24,Mathmatics-12,Eng.-12,Gk-8.The exam time is 2hrs and 1hrs respectively.
The Selection criteria is 80% entrance exam + 10% +2 aggregate marks+SLC marks 10%.

Seats and colleges of agriculture:
1)TU ( Instiute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences )
 a)Pakhlihawa campus -110 seats
 b)Lamjung campus-110 seats
 c)Gokuleshwor campus- Baitadi

2) AFU(Agriculture and Forestry University)
 a)Rampur campus-110 seats

3) PU(Purbhanchal University)
 a)Nepal Polytechnic Institute,Bharatpur,Chitwan
 b)HICAST, Bhaktapur
 The question pattern for the entrance exam conducted by TU is Chem.-25,Phy.-25,Biology-50,English-25,Mathmatics-25Ag.Gk-10 and the question pattern of the entrance exam conducted by Agriculture and Forestry University is Chem.- 12,Phy-12,Bio-24,Mathmatics-12,Eng.-12,Gk-8.The exam time is 2hrs and 1hrs respectively.
The Selection criteria is 80% entrance exam + 10% +2 aggregate marks+SLC marks 10%.

Saturday, July 18, 2015

Increase your site traffic by Google search console

   Google Search Console (previously Google Webmaster Tools) is a  web service by Google for site owners. It allows site owners  to check indexing status and optimize visibility of their websites so that it can be reached by many users all around the world.It helps  to increase traffic in the site/blog.Note that  Google search console only optimizes visibility in the google search engine only.For other search engines one has to use their respective webmasters Tools. Here are the processes to use Google search console.

1) First we have to login to GOOGLE SEARCH CONSOLE via our Google account.
2)Then we have to add our site URL of which we are going to optimize the visibility in google search engine.we can add our both "www" and "non-www" versions.
3)After that we have to verify our site ownership by following the verification processes.
4)Then after completing the verification processes we are able to access the Google search console.
5)We can find various option there that we have to carry out. we can see "select your  preferred version", in this we have to select whether we want to display our site with "www" or without "www".
6)In next option we can see "select your target country". It means we have to select the country where we want our site to be viewed more or our contents are focused on.
7)Likewise,there is "share access with co-workers".If we want other people to access our reports, we can add different access levels by this property.
8)The thing we should not miss is to submit our sitemap file.By submiting sitemap Google understand better how to crawl our site.

    After we are done with all this our site visibility to users is optimized by the google and we are able to get high number of users on our site through google search engine than before. Every search engine needs this type of processes in order to know more about that site and make visible to all.

How to hide or unhide files and folders in computer using cmd?

      In this post I am presenting how to hide and unhide files and folders in computer using command prompt by the help of attrib command.

   Attrib is a command prompt command which helps to remove and place file attributes. Attributes in windows means hidden, read only, archived and system function.When we hide files and folders using this method, the files and folders are not seen when we use “SHOW HIDDEN FILES” option in windows.The processes used in this trick are given below with screenshots.

1)Choose the folder that you want to hide suppose I created folder "pokhara" in d drive.

2)After that open command prompt.

3)In command prompt type the following code  by navigating through the drive  where the
folder is located.
 atrrib  +h +s +r   foldername (pokhara)

4)After that go check your folder it is hidden.
You can hide your folder completely using this trick.

5)To unhide replace the (+)sign by (-)sign.
 attrib -h -s -r foldername (pokhara)

Saturday, July 11, 2015

How to see facebook password in browser?

   Here in this post I am presenting How To See Facebook Password of your own or others if it is in the process of being logged in your computer browser by the help of page source code.

1)First open your browser and then type your email address and password on facebook login page.

2)After that select the password and right click on it and then click on Inspect element at the bottom. 

3)After that you are directed to as below.

4)  There you will get the page source code and the line with marked label is the password’s source code. Right click on the marked label and Click Edit HTML.
5) Then replace the "password" under the bracket by the "text".

6) Press enter and then you are able to see the password you type
7)To disable this you must replace the “text” with the “password” as it was before.

Truth and Mind

           Truth is always here. It is already the case. It is not something to be achieved in the future. You are the truth just here and now, so it is not something which is to be created or something which is to be sought.
           Mind is mechanism of desiring. Mind is always in desire, always seeking something .Mind is not concerned with the present at all. In this very moment the mind cannot move; there is no space. The mind needs future in order to move. It can move either in the past or in the future.

   The truth is the present and mind is always in future or past, so there is not meeting between mind and truth.

Saturday, July 4, 2015

What is Android?

  Actually Android is composed of  andro and oid where andro stands for human and oid stands for appearance. In technology sector android is an operating system. It is not new to us. In English dictionary Android was used since 19 century but after 20 century its use was increased dramatically. Nowadays it is the most popular operating system in mobile phones.

We may think that android operating system was initiated by Google but it’s not true. Andy Rubin, Mich Miner, Nick sears and Chris white had established android co-operation in 2003A.D. In 2005 A.D Google purchased Android Co in 50 million dollars. At first android was not an operating system it was just an application and after its original version was released it got changed to this stage.
Facts about Android
#In 1980s Android word was used in many films and games.
#The first Android phone was HTC G1 which was made on June 2008. In US it was known by the      name T MOBILE G1.
#Irina Blok in 2007A.D made logo for Android.
#November 5 is celebrated as the birthday of Android.
#Android is an open source code which everyone can change.
#In 2013 Android users became equal to that of ios, mac and windows.
#All of the Android versions were named after the sweet chocolates but first two pre-commercial release versions were alpha and beta.
#Google provides Android OS free of cost to mobile phone manufacturers.
#Everyday 1.5 million android mobile are active in the world.
#All of the Android versions are in English alphabetical order.
1) Alpha (1.0) - September 2003
2) Beta (1.1)-February 2007
3) Cupcake (1.5)-April 2009
4) Donut (1.6)-Sep 2009
5) Éclair (2.0-2.1)-Oct 2009
6) Froyo (2.2-2.2.3)-May 2010
7) Gingerbread (2.3-2.3.7) - Dec 2010
8) Honeycomb (3.0-3.2.6) - Feb 2011
9) Ice cream Sandwich (4.0-4.0.4) - Oct 2011
10) Jelly Bean (4.1-4.3.1) - July 2012
11) Kitkat (4.4-4.4.4)-Oct 2013
12) Lollipop (5.0-5.0.2)

Monday, May 25, 2015


       GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communications and as of 2015 it has become a global standard for mobile communications with 90% market share operating in over 219 countries and territories.

    CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access. CDMA is an example of multiple accesses, where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies.

    GSM mobile network is widely used by most of the world’s mobile operators. Most of the mobile phones support GSM network however few of them might support CDMA and very few both.

    In Nepal currently NEPAL TELECOM provides both GSM and CDMA network services and NCELL provides GSM network service only. UTL one of the mobile operators in Nepal provides CDMA mobile network service. There are high numbers of GSM service users than CDMA in Nepal.

Sunday, May 24, 2015

Sal (Shorea Robusta) in Nepal

 Plant local name:

    Distribution and Description:

      The tree is native to Indian sub continent ranging south of the Himalaya from Myanmar in east to Nepal, India and Bangladesh. In Nepal it is mostly found in terai region from east to west, especially in the Churia range. There are many protected areas such as Chitwan national park, Bardia national park and Shukla phata wildlife reserve where there are dense forests of huge Sal trees. It is also found in the lower belt of the hilly region and inner terai.
         S. Robusta is a large, deciduous tree up to 50m tall and with a DBH at 5m, these are exceptional sizes, and under normal conditions, it attains a height of about 18-32 m and girths 1.5-2m.
         The leaves of shorea Robusta are simple, shiny, glabrous, about 10-25cm long and broadly oval at the base, with apex tapering into a long point, new leaves reddish, soon becoming delicate green, flowers yellowish-white, arranged in large terminal or axillary racemose panicles.
           Fruit at full size is about 1.3-1.5cm long and 1cm in diameter it is surrounded by segments of the calyx enlarged into 5 rather unequal wings.

 Importance in Nepal:
           The natural s. Robusta forests in the terai are the country’s main source of building timber, and in the valleys of the hill region are a valuable source of timber fuel wood and fodder. The timber weighs between 800kg/m^3 and 960kg/m^3. It is an excellent fuel wood, with an energy content at about 22,700 KJ/kg for the heartwood and 21,300KJ/kg for the sapwood.
           Sal oil or butter is used for cooking locally and used for soap up to 30%. Refined, modified fat is a substitute for cocoa butter and used in confectionery industry. Sal butter is used in manufacturing of edible ghee, paints and pigments, lubricants, auto oil, etc. Sal seed oil can be used economically for production of bio diesel.
         S. Robusta leaves are widely used for making leaf plate and cups for both home use and sale to sale plate factories.

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Vermicomposting in Nepal


     Vermicomposting is the process of composting using various worms, usually Red wrigglers, White worms and other Earthworms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding material and vermicast.

  Suitable species

      The most suitable species most often used for composting is the red wriggler (fisenia fetida or eisenia Andrei and lumbricus rubellus).other species used are:
1) Perionyx excavates
2) Eudrilus euginae
3) Lampito mauritii


1)      For vermicomposting a large variety of bins are commercially available, or a variety of adapted containers may be used. They may be made of old plastic containers, wood or metal containers. The design of a bin usually depends on where an individual wishes to store the bin and how they wish to feed the worm. Bins need holes for aeration.
2)      The most common worms used in composting systems, red worms feed most rapidly at temperatures of 15-25 degree Celsius. They can survive at 10 degree Celsius. Temperature above 30 degree Celsius may harm them. If worm bin is kept outside, it should be placed in a sheltered position away from the direct sunlight and insulated against frost in winter. Green waste can be added in moderation to avoid heating of bin.
3)      The worms at first should be left to get acclimated to the bin for about a week and after that we may begin to add waste. One pound of red worms can eat half a pound of waste daily, which translate to 3 to 4 pounds each week.
4)      Materials you can compost include fruit and vegetable peels, skins and cores, egg shells rinsed off to remove inner residues; used coffee grounds; and used tea bags; grains such as bread, cracker and cereals. The compost gets ready in 3 months.


1)      Never compost meat because it will turn rancid and smell and can promote the growth of harmful bacteria.
2)      Red worms should be used in vermicomposting instead of earthworms because the conditions inside the bin are too hot for earthworms to survive.


1) Soil

a) The compost improves soil aeration.
b) It enriches soil with micro organisms.
c) It improves water holding capacity.
d) Microbial activity in worm castings is 10 to 20 times higher than in soil and organic matter that the worm ingests.
e) Vermicompost attracts deep-burrowing earthworms present in soil.

2) Solid waste management

a) It reduces waste flow to landfills in huge quantity and thus promotes solid waste management.
b) Elimination of bio wastes from the waste stream reduces contamination of other recyclables collected in a single bin.
c) Vermicomposting makes use of waste material both in urban as well as rural areas to improve sanitary conditions.
d) It manages 70-75% waste in solid form.

3) Economic benefits

a) It creates low skill jobs at local level.
b) Low capital investment and relatively simple technologies male vermicomposting practical for less developed agricultural regions.
c) Effective replacement of chemical fertilizers.
d) produces high quality compost (8-10 times better than conventional compost)
e) It does not make use of electricity/energy.
f) Locally available materials can be used, which costs less. It means vermicomposting can be done on low investment.

4) Vermicast is completely biodegradable.
5)It is user friendly, even handicapped person can do.

6) It is environment friendly as it does not pollute or degrade the environment rather it preserves the environment to a greater extent.

Earn money from a blog in Nepal

           Blog is an informational site published on World Wide Web that contains posts. Blog publishing service hosted by Google at a sub domain of is most preferred by the bloggers. However, word press at a sub domain of is also widely used. Earning money from blog is not an easy task it needs hard work and patience. People do not intend to earn money at first while starting up a blog plus it is not possible to earn money for new bloggers as no one knows about the blog and search engine doesn't show up the content written on the new blog. New bloggers need to focus on their content and way to attract huge traffic on their blog by sharing it to social networking sites. If the site is able to attract number of users in very short period one may think of earning money from it. To earn money yet another step is still remaining. We have to be successful in connecting with google ad sense  then only we can get the money in our pocket. We can generate money from google ad sense. Google ad sense is a program run by Google that allows publishing ads and generating money on the basis of pay per click and number of page views. It is also not easy to sign up for a Google ad sense account there is risk of being disapproved by google ad sense. For that we should not copy other posts and upload copyright images and videos without taking permission and giving adequate credit. There should for enough posts on our blog to be eligible to apply for Google ad sense. In some countries like China and India the blog should be 6 months old to be eligible to apply. But in our country Nepal its not the case if our blog is good we can  be approved for Google ad sense in no time. After we become approved for Google ad sense we may earn money easily if we have quality posts that attract huge users from all around the world. We can receive money from western union as well as payoneer MasterCard after connecting with ad sense. The both medium of receiving payment  are preferred in Nepal.


Friday, May 22, 2015



There are numerous bigger to smaller Internet service providers(Isps) that have been providing Internet service in pokhara. Here is the list of some of Internet service providers of pokhara (with brief introduction including its office location and respective sites) that have served in and out of the Pokhara valley.

1)ADSL Broadband Internet Service- It is the Internet service which is provided by the leading company of Nepal NEPAL TELECOM.It has high market share in pokhara in terms of Internet service.Its office is located in Ranipauwa,pokhara.To know more about the service we can visit the site

2)Pokhara Internet-Probably, it might be the second biggest Internet service provider in pokhara in terms of market share.It had started its service a decade ago.Now it have established itself as leading Internet service provider in pokhara.Its office is located in Gairapatan,pokhara and to know more about it simply we have to log on to

3)Broadlink-Broadlink has also high number of users in pokhara.Its office is located at New Road,Pokhara and to get more information we can go for

4)Worldlink-Worldlink might be one of the leading Isp of Nepal.But its presence in pokhara was  comparatively less before 2016.But  from end of 2016 it has expanded its area and market through its unlimited fiber internet packages.It has begun providing very high speed internet at low price compared to others.Likewise, we can have cable service through the fiber.In near future it is sure to have good market in and around pokhara valley.Its office is located at Sitabhawan in Mahendrapool.Visit here

5)UTL- We can get unlimited Internet service from UTL.But its service  might be comparatively slow than others.However it is also in use in pokhara valley.Its office is located in NayaBazar Road and for more info get

     In my view above mentioned  Internet providers are highly preferred by the Internet users in Pokhara.There are other providers that have served in pokhara valley.Here is list of some of them:

Location: Pokhara-Baglung Highway
7)Lumbini Net

Location:New Road   

9)Barahi Internet Technologies Pvt.Ltd
Location: SrijanaChowk   

10)Japan Nepal Information Communications Technology
Location: PrithiviChowk

11) Telnet Internet Pvt.Ltd
Location:Simalchaur, Kaski

Thursday, May 21, 2015


                                                                                                                           Now almost every computer user needs to perform various tasks like creating documents, spreadsheets ,presentation, forms, etc and for these tasks they need  to use application like Word editor, spreadsheet creator, presentation tool and other similar types. Microsoft office is one of the best available packages of the tools.  But to use it we have to spend a large amount of money and we cannot use it to work online. GOOGLE DOCS can be a solution for this. 

GOOGLE DOCS is a freeware tool that helps to create documents, spreadsheets, presentations, forms, drawings, etc which is absolutely free and an online alternative to MS Office package. Using it anyone can work from anywhere across the globe and for this the person just need to access to the Internet. You can share your work with anyone you want from within GOOGLE DOCS itself. This means you don’t need to manually find file in your computer system and attach to your email. You are provided with 1024mb of free space to store data online. You can download documents to your computer hard disk in just one click. Listed below are the steps that help you use GOOGLE DOCS:

1)First, you need to create Gmail account.
2)Once Gmail account is created, you are eligible to use it.
3)Start any web browser and type in the address bar of the web browser.
4)Log in with your Gmail ID and password. Within few moments, you see your personalized interface of GOOGLE DOCS.

Sunday, May 17, 2015

A brief introduction of topmost magician of 2015 with notable tricks

   Magic although performed by humans has been a great matter of concern to the themselves humans since its existence.Magic is a performing art that entertains audiences by staging tricks or creating illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats using natural means. These feats are called magic tricks, effects or illusions. A professional who performs such illusions is called a  magician or an illusionist. There were magicians in ancient times as well as now.Here is brief introduction of  topmost magician of 2015:
1)David copperfield
David Copperfield (September 16, 1956) is an American illusionist,who has been described by Forbes as the most commercially successful magician in history.Copperfield's television specials have won 21 Emmy Awards of a total 38 nominations. Best known for his combination of storytelling and illusion, Copperfield’s career of over 30 years has earned him 11 Guinness World Records and he has been named a Living Legend by the USA Library of Congress.Copperfield has so far sold 40 million tickets and grossed over $4 billion, which is more than any other solo entertainer in history.
Notable tricks:
David Copperfield's laser illusion
Portal (magic trick)
Walking Through the Great Wall of China
Death Saw
David Copperfield's flying illusion
Squeeze box (magic trick)

Shey-phoksundo National Park Nepal


Shey-phoksundo National Park is situated in the Trans-Himalayan region of northwest Nepal. It is Nepal’s largest National Park covering an area of 3,555 km2. It was established in 1984 to preserve a unique Trans-Himalayan ecosystem with a diversity of flora and fauna. The Park’s climatic differences, altitude variations, and different zoo-geographical regions support a diverse range of biotic systems. In 1988, an area of 1349 km2 surrounding the park was declared as buffer zone, which consists of forests and private lands. The buffer zone is jointly managed by the park and local communities. Together they initiate community development activities and manage the natural and cultural resources.


Shey- Phoksundo National Park provides a diversity of spectacular landscapes. Elevations in the park range from 2,130m in Ankhe to 6,883m at the summit of Kanjiroba Himal. Much of the park lies north of the Himalayan crest. Nepal’s deepest and second largest lake, Phoksundo Lake, lies in upper regions of Suligad. Near the lake’s outlet is the country’s highest waterfall. The major rivers in the park are the Khung, Nmajung and Panjang, the Suligad and Jugdual Rivers, which are the major tributaries of the Thuli Bheri River; and the Langu River, which drains the high dolpo plateau to the east and flows westward. Phoksundo Lake is famous for its magnificent turquoise color and the spectacular scenery clearly rank it with the most scenic mountain parks in the world. Ringmo village, a typical Tibetan village, is scenically nestled in the area. Many beautiful glaciers can be found near and above the lake area. The Park contains many Gompas (Monasteries) and religious area. The most famous, Shey Gompa was established in the 11th Century. Thashung Gompa located near Phoksundo Lake was built about 900 years ago to conserve wildlife.


 As a result of its spanning both the northern and southern aspects of the Himalayan crest, the park experiences a wide climatic range. Most of the precipitation in the area occurs during the monsoon (July-September), although the Dhaulagari and Kanjiroba Ranges from a massive barrier preventing most of the rain from reaching the Trans-Himalayan area. The park contains the transition form a monsoon dominated climate with 1500 mm of annual precipitation in the south (Suligad) to an arid climate with less than 500 mm a year in the northern slopes. Winters are quite severe, with frequent snowfalls above 2,500m and temperature’s remaining below freezing above 3,000m through much of the winter.

Flora & Fauna:

The flora found within the park is extremely diverse. The northern regions contain barren areas of the upper Himalayas and the Trans-Himalayan slope lands consisting of some rhododendron, caragana shrubs, and Salix, Juniper, white Himalayan birch, and the occasional silver fir dominate the high meadows of the Himalayas. Less than five percent of the park is forested, with much of it lying in the southern portion. The Suligad Valley’s flora consists of blue pine, spruce, hemlock, cedar, silver fir, poplar, rhododendron, and bamboo. The park also contains 286 species of ethno botanical importance. The park provides important habitat for endangered species including the snow leopard, grey wolf, musk deer, and blue sheep, goral, great Tibetan sheep, Himalayan tahr, leopard, jackal, and Himalayan black bear are also found in the park. The park is home to 6 species of reptiles and 29 species of butterfly, including the highest flying butterfly in the world, Paralasa nepalaica. The park provides habitat for over 200 species of birds, among which include yellow-throated marten, Tibetan partridge, wood snip, white-throated tit, wood accentor, and crimson-eared rose finch.


 The park is home to more than 9,000 people and their villages’ area among the highest settlements on Earth. Most of the inhabitants of the park practice Bon Buddhism, an ancient religion with roots in Animism and Buddhism. The Bon-po religion, which forms the entire cultural base for Tibetan Buddhism, was founded 18,000 years ago, during the Zhang Zung Empire of today's western Tibet. The landscape is dotted with sacred monasteries, thangka paintings, and chortens. The local community is heavily dependent on trade with Tibet and agriculture. This area is also famous for its salt trade caravans.


  Like other conservation areas in Nepal there are also several  problems in shey phoksundo national park just like park people conflicts, poor governance and lack of implementation of rules, inadequate data for monitoring endangered wildlife species and the ever changing need for trans-boundary bi-lateral relationship, unfair trade practices and unsustainable collection of the natural resources, increasing livelihoods of people depending on park’s resources, grazing by the cattle on the pastures . Studies have shown that it is still lacking in proper recognition of priority areas, there is a huge gap in the availability of sufficient data about the area and its diversity and people, the acting legislations & regulations are continued to work in paper in some places where the hands of law cannot touch. There are increased incidents of valued products like the ‘yarchagumba’ (Cordyceps sinensis) being smuggled into our neighboring countries. Certain lapses on the side of government and park officials have so far hindered the process of conservation and communities who sometimes oppose the control measures and access to the conserved flora and fauna. Like any place else on earth, SPNP is also affected by the perils of climate change. Its residents are witnessing a change which is rapid and are less prepared to face the consequences. Poverty, illiteracy, lack of awareness of the local people are other additional problems to be included.
Conservation measures:
      Despite the problems in SPNP there are also several conservation measures conducted. Various rules and regulation are implemented for the visitors visiting the park. Entering the park without permit is made illegal. Various relevant legislation is working for the conservation of the park. Several activities regarding the conservation are conducted by the local people. Women’s participation in the development programme through non-formal education (NFE) classes that increase literacy and teach health, sanitation, marketing, and tourism management is conducted. Maintenances of existing forest cover and restoration of degraded forests through reforestation, agro forestry, user group forestry, alternative energy projects and village nurseries is done. Reduction of the impacts of grazing through improved livestock and pasture management i.e. improved fodder quality, increased livestock productivity, rotational grazing schemes and strengthened local rangeland management organizations is carried out. Park management plan based on scientific principles, with people's participation is developed. Strengthening of the capacity of local communities and government institutions which manage and regulate the use of natural resources was thought to be must for the conservation and more emphasis is given on it.


     In my opinion there is still a need for development of a vast knowledge base, especially related to SPNP, its resources and how we can help develop the place and its people. There should be better understanding of Conservation strategies and approaches. There are needs for several amendments in the country’s policies and strategies. Awareness of the importance of biodiversity among local people through environmental education should be done. If we could improve and maintain local living standards while safeguarding the region's unique environmental and cultural heritage the conservation process will be more effective. The Department of Forests should take a leading role in the regeneration of medicinal plants and illegal extraction of medicinal herbs and plants should be totally stopped. Plantations should be developed in the appropriate ecological zones by doing proper research. If we would be able to overcome the shortcomings and challenges we can conserve the flora and fauna in SPNP to our full extent without disturbing the diversity of that area.